Typical Testing

Below, we have listed the typical testing methods for paint & coatings evaluations:

  • Air Space Analysis
    o Desorption w/CS2 from air sampling tubes; GC/MS measurement
  • Application Properties (brush, roll, spray)
    o atomization (spray)
    o coalescent demand
    o contact angle (sessile drop, advancing, receding)
    o dry speed (dry-to-touch, dry-through, mechanical, laser light scattering)
    o flow & leveling (brush, roller, NYPC)
    o lapping
    o low temperature touch-up vs. room temperature
    o low temperature drying and film formation
    o roller spatter
    o sagging
    o spread rate
    o touch-up (brush, roll, spray)
    o wet film thickness
  • Contaminant identification
    o Micro FTIR for ID of small particles
  • Film Appearance Properties
    o color by integrating sphere colorimeter. L*a*b*, L*c*h*, DE
    o DFT (dry film thickness)
    o digital photomicroscopy (1000x w/12 Mp camera)
    o dry hiding (from porosity)
    o gloss (20°, 60°, 85°)
    o hiding power
    o opacity, intrinsic (contrast ratio, scattering coefficient)
    o opacity, applied (brush, roll, spray)
    o reflectance
    o SEM (scanning electron microscopy, up to 3000x)
    o yellowing
  • Film Performance Properties
    o adhesion (cupping, pull-off, tensile, x-hatch)
    o abrasion (falling sand, Taber)
    o abrasive scrub
    o blocking
    o blistering
    o CPVC (Critical Pigment Volume Concentration) by electrochemical measurement.
    o chalking
    o chemical resistance
    o cracking
    o degree of cure (MDSC)
    o EIS (measurement of corrosion resistance by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy)
    o exposure (Cleveland Condensing Humidity, QUV A&B, Salt Spray/Salt Fog, Prohesion)
    o falling dart impact
    o flexibility (mandrel bend)
    o hardness (Clemen, Tukon/Knoop, pencil, Sward Rocker)
    o MEK rubs
    o stain resistance
    o washability
    o water spotting
  • Liquid Coating Properties
    o color acceptance
    o flash point (setaflash, Tag)
    o MFFT (minimum film-forming temperature)
    o pH
    o syneresis
    o stability (freeze-thaw, heat, roller)
    o surface tension (pendant drop)
    o viscosity (Ku, ICI, Brookfield)
    o VOC by EPA Test Method 24
  • Deformulation: Separation of a paint into pigment, binder, and solvent fractions, resulting in the % total NV, P/B ratio. Full deformulation or look for specific component.
    o Identification of the pigment fraction
    – qualitative by FTIR
    – qualitative by gravimetric
    – semi-quantitative elemental analysis by SEM/EDXA w/XRF
    – quantitative by X-ray diffraction (with or w/o JCPDS search)
    o Identification of the solvent fraction (GC/MS)
    – Volatiles analysis (quantitative, qualitative)
    – % water (Karl Fischer; GC)
    o Identification of the vehicle fraction
    – qualitative by FTIR
    – qualitative by pyrolysis/GC/MS
    – quantitative by chemical/instrumental methods (polyesters, alkyds)
    – semi-quantitative by chemical/instrumental methods (acrylics, urethanes)
    – % Wt NV
    – % Vol NV
    – Weight per gallon (density)
    – Acid value
    – Amine Value
    – Epoxide value
    – Hydroxyl value
    – Iodine value
    – Saponification value
    – Nitrogen (Kjeldahl)
    – Nitrogen (volatile)
    – NCO value
    – Molecular weight (HPGPC, HPLC)
    – Inorganic analysis (AA)
    – Polymer composition (pyrolysis GC/MS; FTIR)
    – Surface analysis (Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR)
    – Particle Size
    – Tg
    – Tm
  • Formulation: 
    • Development of paint/coatings formula to customer specifications.
    • Architectural paints, coatings, & stains (interior, exterior, porch & deck, roof, wood, cement, aerosols)
    • Industrial paints and coatings (OEM, industrial maintenance)

 

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